Virginia Postrel makes the case for cheap e-books:
The common intuition is that e-books should be cheap because they aren’t physical–no printing, no shipping. Ah, say contrarians, printing and shipping make up only a tiny fraction of a book’s costs. E-books aren’t really cheap.
Like publishers themselves apparently, these wise guys are using the wrong cost figures. To calculate the cost of a copy, they’re loading on fixed “pre-production” costs like the editor’s salary and the publisher’s rent. They’re including the marketing budget. But these are fixed costs. They don’t change when you produce another copy. They may be important when deciding whether to publish a book at all, but once the money has been spent they’re irrelevant to what you charge for a given copy. Optimal pricing should be based on the marginal cost of that incremental copy. Cover that incremental cost, and selling one more copy is profitable. The common intuition that e-books should be cheap reflects this basic microeconomics: Producing and delivering another e-copy costs next to nothing.
The other side of the equation is consumer response: How many more copies will people buy if the price goes down? Or, in economic lingo, what is the price elasticity of demand? Book publishers talk (and often act) as though book buyers aren’t particularly price sensitive. The Borders and Barnes & Noble coupons in my email suggest otherwise. So does what little academic research exists on the subject. In a paper looking at people buying physical books using a shopbot, economists Erik Brynjolfsson, Astrid Andrea Dick, and Michael D. Smith found very large elasticities: A 1 percent drop in price increased units sold by 7 percent to 10 percent.
Of course, people who use shopbots are likely to be more price sensitive than average. But there’s anecdotal evidence that prices matter a lot for e-books. As The New York Times reported recently, most of the books on the Kindle bestseller list are being given away for free. And comments on various discussion threads among Kindle users suggest that many are bargain hunters looking for a good, cheap read rather than a specific title.